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National Open University Exam Past Question – CHM 406 OCTOBER/NOVEMBER 2014 EXAMINATION

NATIONAL OPEN UNIVERSITY OF NIGERIA CHM 406 NUCLEAR AND RADIOCHEMISTRY

14-16 AHMADU BELLO WAY, VICTORIA ISLAND LAGOS SCHOOL OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY OCTOBER/NOVEMBER 2014 EXAMINATION

 

 

CHM 406 –   NUCLEAR AND RADIOCHEMISTRY

 

Instruction- Answer any four questions                     Time – 2 hours

 

QUESTION 1

 

A (i)      What is radioactivity?     (2 mark)

 

  1. ii) Describe briefly the types of radioactivity. (4 marks)

 

B           Differentiate between ordinary chemical reactions and nuclear reactions.(4 marks) C            Define these terms in radioactivity

(i)          Nuclear Stability                     (2 mark)

(ii)         Electron capture                    (2 mark) (iii)        Gamma ray emission            (2 mark

 

D                                                         (1½ marks)

 

What are a, b and X?

 

QUESTION 2

 

A i)        Mention and discuss the types of exposure to large dose radiation           (5½ marks)

 

  1. ii) Write short notes on the basic principles recommended for keeping radiation exposure  to a minimum lev (6 marks)

 

  1. b. Explain the protection of radiation measures in large organisation            (6 marks) QUESTION 3

a i)        Identify the symbol X in each of the following

 

  1. ii) (ii)         (iii)                       (iv)                              (2 marks)

 

b (i)       Explain the term “Radioactive decay”.                  (2 ½ marks)

 

Write short notes on the following:

 

(ii)      Conservation laws that must hold in radioactive reactions            (8 marks) (iii)      Above the stability region                                                                     (1 ½ marks) iv)          Below stability level                                                                              (1 ½ marks)

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C            Balance the following radioactive equations;

 

  1. i) (1 mark)
  2. ii) (1 mark) QUESTION 4

A           write short notes (representing with an equation where necessary) on these

 

i) ii) iii) iv) Beta decay Alpha  decay Positron decay Gamma decay ( 2 marks) (2 marks) (2 marks) (2 marks)
 

b)

 

Define and discuss the following

 
 

i)

 

Nuclear fusion Reactor

 

(2 marks)

 

ii)

 

Nuclear fusion

 

(2 marks)

i)

ii)

Nuclear Fission

Chain reaction                                                                        (2 ma

(2 marks)

rks)

 

C

 

Mention 2 uses of radioactivity (1 ½mks)

 
 

QUESTION 5

 

A

   

what are tracks and its measurement

 

(2 marks)

 

B

   

Write short notes on the following;

 
   

i)

 

Solid state nuclear track detector (SSNTD)

 

(2 marks)

   

ii)

 

Cloud and bubble chambers

 

(2 marks)

 

C

   

Briefly explain the various forms of gas ionization counter

 

(6 marks)

 

D           Explain the two types of sample preparation in radioactivity measurements         (5 ½ marks) QUESTION 6

A  i. Mention the two major rules guiding the writing of chemical equations of nuclear

reactions.                                                                                                                  (4 marks)

 

  1. Mention the nuclear models                                                                              (3 marks)

 

b            write short notes on the following

 

i. Elastic scattering (2 marks)
ii. Inelastic scattering (2 marks)
iii. Nuclear excitation (2 marks)
iv. Rotational excitation (2 marks)
v. Vibrational excitation (1 mark)

 

C            Mention the types of scintillation detector                                                      (1 ½marks)

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